The Leadership Experience Fourth EditionRichard L. Daft Owen Graduate School of Management Vanderbilt University With. Daft, Richard L. The Leadership Experience (6th ed.). Stam- ford, CT: Cengage Learning Press. (). pp. ISBN: Paperback $ Equip students with the critical leadership skills and solid understanding in today s turbulent times with Daft s The Leadership Experience, 6E.

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About Books [PDF] The Leadership Experience by Richard Daft: Title: The Leadership Experience Binding: Paperback Author: The Leadership Experience - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), A Review of “The Leadership Experience”, by Daft, R.L., & Lane, P.G. (). Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for [PDF] The Leadership Experience 6th Edition by Richard L. Daft - Email Delivery at the best .

However, group members were displeased with the close, autocratic style of leadership, and feelings of hostility frequently arose. The performance of groups who were assigned democratic leaders was almost as good, and these groups were characterized by positive feelings rather than hostility.

In addition, under the democratic style of leadership, group members performed well even when the leader was absent. These characteristics of democratic leadership may partly explain why the empowerment of employees is a popular trend in companies today. Co n s i d e r T h i s : Mi n i ma l L e a d e rs h i p When the Master governs, the people are hardly aware that he [she] exists.

Next best is a leader who is loved. Next, one who is feared. The worst is one who is despised.

Thus, one leader might be autocratic boss-centered , another democratic subordinate-centered , and a third a mix of the two styles. Tannenbaum and Schmidt also suggested that the extent to which leaders should be boss-centered or subordinate-centered depended on organizational circumstances and that leaders might adjust their behaviors to fit the circumstances.

The findings about autocratic and democratic leadership in the original University of Iowa studies indicated that leadership behavior had a definite effect on outcomes such as follower performance and satisfaction. New Leader Action Memo: As a leader, you can use a democratic leadership style to help followers develop decision-making skills and perform well without close supervision.

An autocratic style might be appropriate when there is time pressure or followers have low skill levels. Discussion Question 4: What is the difference between trait theories and behavioral theories of leadership?

The analysis of ratings from the studies resulted in two wide-ranging categories of leader behavior: Consideration describes the extent to which a leader cares about subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust.

Showing appreciation, listening carefully to problems, and seeking input from subordinates regarding important decisions are all examples of consideration behaviors.

This type of leader behavior includes directing tasks, getting people to work hard, planning, providing explicit schedules for work activities, and ruling with an iron hand. Although many leaders fall along a continuum that includes both consideration and initiating structure behaviors, these behavior categories are independent of one another.

In other words, a leader can display a high degree of both behavior types or a low degree of both behavior types. Research indicates that all four types of leader style combinations can be effective.

In the Lead: Col. Joe D. Dowdy and Maj. Dowdy had both accomplished a grueling military mission and been removed from his command by Maj. James Mattis. One issue that came under examination was the differing styles of Col. Dowdy and Gen. Mattis saw speed as integral to success in the early days of the Iraqi war, pushing for regiments to move quickly to accomplish a mission despite significant risks.

For Col. Dowdy, some risks seemed too high, and he made decisions that delayed his mission but better protected his marines. Dowdy was beloved by his followers because he was deeply concerned about their welfare, paid attention to them as individuals, and treated them as equals, going so far as to decline certain privileges that were available only to officers.

Despite their different styles, both leaders were highly respected by followers. For example, research that utilized performance criteria, such as group output and productivity, showed initiating structure behavior was rated more effective. Discuss the reasons for your answer?

Notes C. University of Michigan Studies Studies at the University of Michigan took a different approach by directly comparing the behavior of effective and ineffective supervisors. The effectiveness of leaders was determined by productivity of the subordinate group.

Over time, the Michigan researchers established two types of leadership behavior, each type consisting of two dimensions. First, employee-centered leaders display a focus on the human needs of their subordinates. Leader support and interaction facilitation are the two underlying dimensions of employee-centered behavior. This means that in addition to demonstrating support for their subordinates, employee-centered leaders facilitate positive interaction among followers and seek to minimize conflict.

In contrast to the employee-centered leader, the job-centered leader directs activities toward scheduling, accomplishing tasks, and achieving efficiency.

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Goal emphasis and work facilitation are dimensions of this leadership behavior. By focusing on reaching task goals and facilitating the structure of tasks, job-centered behavior approximates that of initiating structure. However, unlike the consideration and initiating structure styles defined by the Ohio State studies, Michigan researchers considered employee-centered leadership and job-centered leadership to be distinct styles in opposition to one another.

A leader is identifiable by behavior characteristic of one or the other style but not both. In addition, while leadership behavior was demonstrated to affect the performance and satisfaction of subordinates, performance was also influenced by other factors related to the situation within which leaders and subordinates worked. Team Management 9,9 is often considered the most effective style and is recommended because organization members work together to accomplish tasks.

Country club management 1,9 occurs when emphasis is given to people rather than to work outputs. Authority-compliance management 9, 1 occurs when efficiency in operations is the dominant orientation. Middle-of-the-road management 5,5 reflects a moderate amount of concern for both people and production.

Impoverished management 1,1 means the absence of a leadership philosophy; leaders exert little effort toward interpersonal relationships or work accomplishment. Like Conant, Morrison is a strong proponent of empowerment and employee engagement.

Arrington says his style is to bust down doors and clean up the mess later. Recognizing his weak point in being a manager of people, Arrington hired Heather Harde as CEO of the company, which enabled TechCrunch to grow and allowed Arrington to focus on what he was best at doing.

The research into the behavior approach culminated in two predominate types of leadership behaviors—people-oriented and task-oriented. A review of 50 years of leadership research, for example, identified taskoriented behavior and people-oriented behavior as primary categories related to effective leadership in numerous studies.

The second question is whether people orientation and task orientation exist together in the same leader, and how. The grid theory argues that yes, both are present when people work with or through others to accomplish an activity.

Although leaders may be high on either style, there is considerable belief that the best leaders are high on both behaviors. The third question concerns whether people can actually change themselves into leaders high on people- or task-orientation.

In the s and s, when the Ohio State and Michigan studies were underway, the assumption of researchers was that the behaviors of effective leaders could be emulated by anyone wishing to become an effective leader. People-oriented behavior is related to higher follower satisfaction, and task-oriented behavior is typically associated with higher productivity. Leadership Challenge 6: Understand how the theory of individualized leadership has broadened the understanding of relationships between leaders and followers.

Individualized Leadership Traditional trait and behavior theories assume that a leader adopts a general leadership style that is used with all group members. A more recent approach to leadership behavior research, individualized leadership, looks instead at the specific relationship between a leader and each individual follower.

Individualized leadership is based on the notion that a leader develops a unique relationship with each subordinate or group member, which determines how the leader behaves toward the member and how the member responds to the leader.

In this view, leadership is a series of dyads, or a series of two-person interactions. The dynamic view focuses on the concept exchange, what each party gives to and receives from the other. The second stage examined specific attributes of the exchange relationship. The third stage explored whether leaders could intentionally develop partnerships with each group member. Vertical Dyad Linkage Model The vertical dyad linkage model VDL argues for the importance of the dyad formed by a leader with each member of the group.

Initial findings indicated that followers provided very different descriptions of the same leader. These high-quality relationships might be characterized as high on both people and task orientation. Based on these two extreme behavior patterns, subordinates were found to exist in either an in-group or an out-group in relation to the leader.

In the terminology of the VDL model, these people would be considered to participate in an in-group relationship with the leader, whereas other members of the group who did not experience a sense of trust and extra consideration would participate in an out-group relationship.

In-group members, those who rated the leader highly, had developed close relationships with the leader and often became assistants who played key roles in the functioning of the work unit. Out-group members were not key players in the work unit.

Discussion question 6: The vertical dyad linkage model suggests that followers respond individually to the leader. If this is so, what advice would you give leaders about displaying people-oriented versus task-oriented behavior? Leader-Member Exchange Stage two in the development of the individualized leadership theory explored the leadermember exchange LMX in more detail, discovering that the impact on outcomes depends on how the LMX process develops over time.

Studies evaluating characteristics of the LMX relationship explored such things as communication frequency, value agreement, characteristics of followers, job satisfaction, performance, job climate, and commitment.

Overall, studies have found that the quality of the LMX relationship is substantially higher for in-group members. LMX theory proposes that this higher-quality relationship will lead to higher performance and greater job satisfaction for in-group members. For followers, a highquality exchange relationship may mean more interesting assignments, greater responsibility and authority, and tangible rewards such as pay increases and promotions.

Partnership Building In this third phase of research, the focus was on whether leaders could develop positive relationships with a large number of subordinates. If leaders are perceived to be granting excessive benefits and advantages to in-group members, members of the out-group may rebel, which can damage the entire organization. New Leader Action Memo: As a leader, you can build a positive, individualized relationship with each follower to create an equitable work environment and provide greater benefits to yourself, followers, and the organization.

Thus, the third phase of research in this area focused on whether leaders could develop positive relationships with all followers. In this approach, the leader views each person independently and may treat each individual in a different but positive way. In the LMX research study, leaders were trained to offer the opportunity for a high-quality relationship to all group members, and the followers who responded to the offer dramatically improved their performance.

The implications of this finding are that true performance and productivity gains can be achieved by having the leader develop positive relationships one on one with each subordinate. Discussion Question 7: Does it make sense to you that a leader should develop an individualized relationship with each follower? Explain advantages and disadvantages to this approach. Notes Leadership Challenge 7: Describe some key characteristics of entrepreneurial leaders.

Entrepreneurial Traits and Behaviors Entrepreneurship refers to initiating a business venture, organizing the necessary resources, and assuming the associated risks and rewards. An entrepreneur recognizes a viable idea for a business product or service and carries it out by finding and assembling the necessary resources—money, people, machinery, location—to undertake the business venture. Entrepreneurial leaders display many of the same characteristics as other leaders, but some traits are particularly important for entrepreneurs.

These leaders need strong drive, enthusiasm, and future vision. They tend to be persistent, independent, and action oriented. They are drawn to new opportunities and are more concerned with innovation, creativity, and creating new processes than with maintaining the status quo. They are typically highly self-motivated and are willing to stretch themselves and take risks for improvement.

These leaders take risks to create novel solutions to competitive challenges confronting a business, especially the development or enhancement of products and services. Entrepreneurial leadership is a source of innovation and change for established companies.

Discussion Question 9: Why is an entrepreneurial leader important to an organization? How is this role different from other leader roles?


Notes Discussion Questions 1. Why is it important for leaders to know their strengths? Therefore, the best leaders recognize and hone their strengths, while trusting and collaborating with others to make up for their weak points. Leaders should also learn about their weak points so that they can rely on others to compensate for their weaknesses.

For example, a leader who struggles with managing his or her time effectively can get assistance from a follower who excels in time-management.

Many leaders are hampered by the idea that they should be good at everything. Suggest some personal traits of leaders you have known. Some of them may mention personal traits like courage, selfconfidence, good communication skills, and dedication. Some of them may disagree. Leaders at all levels need some degree of optimism to see possibilities even through the thickest fog and rally people around a vision for a better tomorrow. It means a positive outlook for solving problems.

What is the difference between trait theories and behavioral theories of leadership? Fundamental to this theory was the idea that some people are born with traits that make them natural leaders. The behavior approach says that anyone who adopts the appropriate behavior can be a good leader. Behaviors can be learned more readily than traits, making leadership accessible to all. Discuss the reasons for your answer. It depends on the project. The Grid theory argues that people orientation and task orientation in the same leader are present when people work with others to accomplish an activity.

The vertical dyad linkage model suggests that followers respond individually to the leader. Some of them may say that the subordinates who rate the leader highly would have developed close relationships with the leader and often become assistants who play key roles in the functioning of the work unit.

Out-group members are not key players in the work unit. The key to developing in-group members is to form oneon-one relationships, which also results in higher job satisfaction and performance. Does it make sense to you that a leader should develop an individualized relationship with each follower? Some of them may say that a leader should develop an individualized relationship with each follower. One of the major advantage of this approach is that it leads to higher performance and improved job satisfaction which allows leaders to rely on followers for assistance and followers to participate in decision making.

Review of the book the leadership experience r l daft

The major disadvantage of this approach is that following stage three of the leader-member relationship, it is difficult to change the pattern. The democratic leader shares in decision making and values the opinions of subordinates.

Therefore, in his absence, the subordinates have already engaged in decision-making and are able to carry on. The autocratic leader does not allow subordinate decision making, and subordinates would be afraid to change their behavior in the absence of the leader.

In addition, autocratic leadership is used when there is a great difference in skill level and the subordinates cannot function independently.

Why is an entrepreneurial leader important to an organization?

Daft Richard L. The Leadership Experience

Entrepreneurial leaders are important to an organization because they take risks to create novel solutions to competitive challenges confronting a business, especially the development or enhancement of products and services.

Unlike other leader roles, entrepreneurial leadership is a source of innovation and change for established companies. Entrepreneurial leaders proactively pursue new opportunities and translate new ideas into practice.

Entrepreneurial leaders display creativity, drive, enthusiasm, and future vision. They tend to be persistent and independent. Entrepreneurial leaders are more concerned with innovation and creating new processes than with maintaining the status quo.

Pick three traits from the list in Exhibit 2. Some of them may choose the following roles: Operational Role: According to Exhibit 2. These traits are valuable for operational leaders who fill vertical management positions in a business.

Operational leaders fill traditional line and general management positions in a business, for example. They set goals, establish plans, and get things done primarily through the vertical hierarchy and the use of position power.

They need high self-confidence and tend to be assertive, always pushing forward and raising the bar. Collaborative Role: According to Exhibit 2. Collaborative leaders often work behind the scenes, using their personal power to influence others and get things done.

Teaching Tools and Exercises 1. In her first book, Take the Lead, Betsy Myers, senior advisor to Presidents Barack Obama and Bill Clinton and former executive director of the Harvard Center for Public Leadership, explains the characteristics that will make you a motivating and inspirational leader.

Take the Lead describes seven characteristics that good leaders share—authenticity, connection, respect, clarity, collaboration, learning, and courage. It is a quality we nurture in ourselves, regardless of our job or station in life. On the Web: Go to Leadership at www.

Discuss the Following Leader: Napoleon Bonaparte His brain is among the most perfect that has ever been. His ever ready attention seizes indefatigably upon facts and ideas, which his memory registers and classifies.

His imagination plays with them freely, and a state of incessant secret tension enables it tirelessly to produce those political and strategic theses which reveal themselves to him as sudden intuitions comparable to that of the mathematician and the poet.

This happens especially at night when he wakes up suddenly. Napoleon is before all else a temperament. Using Exhibit 2. Napoleon had the ability to rally the French army.

Researchers have shown that effective leaders were often identified with exceptional follower performance. What traits made Napoleon's followers support him? This question could be used as an out-of-class library assignment. Leadership Styles in Action Divide the class into two groups. Each group has ten minutes to defend its leader by giving reasons and examples.

Group I: Consideration describes the extent to which a leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust e. Next, write down three things you admire about the person, such as what he or she did or the qualities that person possesses.

For the second part of the exercise, select an ideal leader whom you know personally. This can be anyone from your life experiences.

What is similar about the traits you listed for the two leaders? Interview another student in class about traits he or she admires.

What do the traits tell you about the person you are interviewing? To what extent do you display the same traits as the ones on your list? Will you develop those traits even more in the future? Leadership Development: Cases for Analysis I. Consolidated Products Synopsis Consolidated Products is a medium-sized manufacturer of consumer products. Ben Samuels was a plant manager who was well liked by employees. They were grateful for the fitness center, picnics, and holiday parties.

Ben believed it was important to treat employees properly so they would have a sense of loyalty. Under Ben, the plant had the lowest turnover but the second worst record for costs and production levels.

He was asked to take early retirement and Phil Jones replaced him. Phil had a reputation as a manager who could get things done. Supervisors were instructed to establish high-performance standards.

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The Leadership Experience

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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide.Leaders can be more effective when they are in positions that best match their natural tendencies.

Get the item you ordered or get your money back. Ben Samuels is an employee-centered or people-oriented boss. Discussion Question 2: Suggest some personal traits of leaders you have known.

Recognize autocratic versus democratic leadership behavior and the impact of each.