Maybe I should have been flattered to be placed within such a distinguished genealogy of architectural greats, but actually I was hurt. Some wag was acting the. Architecture Depends: Reviews. In order to Architecture Depends: MIT Press A version of Chapter 2 was published in field: and is available as a pdf. Architecture Depends.: MIT Press,. p ppg= Copyright © MIT Press.. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in .

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Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Jeremy Till and others published Architecture Depends. Architecture depends / Jeremy Till. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN (hardcover: alk. paper). 1. Architecture—Philosophy. 2. Polemics and reflections on how to bridge the gap between what architecture actually is and what architects want it to be. Architecture depends—on what?.

The resemblances among public buildings in almost every Western country during the s and s', for example, could then be understood with reference to 'parallel developments, spurred by similar underlying political and social needs' of the depression years Lane, , These created the same rationale for buildings in different countries through different routes that changed according to their specific conditions Figures The presumed validity of classifying architecture 'nationally' necessitates studying 'national architecture' in terms of the context of'nation'-states.

Architecture as Figure 2a. House of German Art, , an institution, and system of practices, including its manner and forms of educa- Troosl, Munich Curtis, , It is regulated by its 'norms and forms', thereby making the 'nation'-state more easily able to make use of it to the end of its ideology.

A vision of historicity is necessary in the search for the meaning of architecture that analyzes the social relations and practices of subjects in 'society-in-history' Markus, That is the reason why, in order to analyze the concept of 'national architecture', it is helpful to understand the system of the 'nation'-state as the social context that provides the regularities and constraints of the field of architecture.

On the other hand, the fact that there exists a 'nation'-state system operating according to nationalist ideology , does not guarantee a unified identity for the 'nation' which will be reflected in architectural productions, that Figure 2b.

Museum of Modem Art, , means, there must be a 'national style' in architecture. Such a belief may be the Dondei, Viard and Dastuge, Paris Benevolo, reason why authoritarian consequently totalitarian state-systems like that of , However, it must not be forgotten that nationalist ideology is in fact inherent to all 'nation'-state systems, although its effects may not always be experienced as overtly as the effects of politics in totalitarian state-systems.

For example, for state intervention in visual arts in Britain, it is stated that the form of organization of the corporate state 'contributes towards, or provides the conditions for, the systematic displacement of overt politics from the exercise of State power and authority Moreover, it is also difficult to define a set of formal elements typical of a specific building program that resulted from the policies of a specific regime.

Even in the authoritarian Nazi Germany, '[t]he cultural policy of the new regime as reflected in its building program was, like Nazi ideology itself, confused and contradictory. Among the makers of official architectural policy, at least four different factions developed Thus despite the party's claim to Chancellery, , Speer, Berlin Adam, Similarly, '[t]he seeming paradox of different outcomes [in Italian architecture during the fascist era] serves to caution against any simplistic explanation of nationalism, modernism, culture or style in studying not only Italian architecture, but also the modern architecture of any country in this same period' Etlin, , There is 'sufficient fluidity in the possible political readings of any particular architectural motifs for architects to presume a considerable albeit socially bounded scope of practice open to them in these matters' Baird, , Hence, in an attempt to understand the nature and meaning of architectural products, accepting the existence of an inherent relationship between ideology Figure 3b.

Department of CommerceBuild- and its 'culture' does not mean that forms of architecture is taken simply as the ing, , Yorkand Sawyer, Washington D. This would be as misleading in terms of assigning C.

Kostof, , Figure 5b. I lousing, Nazi Germany Lane, S.

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Meanwhile, the construction of 'national order' depends on various kinds of symbolic tools Political authority In this way, symbols become the means and ends of power itself. And through them, politics is shaped by a cultural frame in its attempts to create a new man and a new face of the country Architecture is certainly not just another symbolic tool: It not only is one of the 'images' constituting this face, but also creates the larger spatial and constructed environment to house the institutions and organizations of the 'nation'-state system.

Youtli Hostel, Nazi Germany and interaction occur Coaldrake, , 4. It is thus significant both materially and symbolically in the coming-into-being of a 'national order'. Figure Sd. Parly Building, Nazi Germany Lane, , Figure 5e. Ftihrcr Building, Nazi Germany Adam, , And 'the outcomes are predetermined neither by a universal form that nationalism must take nor by a weighty and hardened cultural tradition' Fox, ,8.

Moral Agency in Architecture? The Dialectics of Spatializing Morality and Moralizing Space

The meaning of architecture resides not in its assumed autonomy in terms of either the aesthetic or ideological character of architectural forms , but in its existence as part of a specific social formation, within the relations of production of its time and place. That means, looking for the meaning of architecture in relation to reality, does not mean taking the context as the ultimate determinant.

The so-called new art history is critical especially of the 'social history of art' on this point, rejecting the separation of 'text' artistic products from 'context': Context and text are thus established in the guise of separation that is at the same time an evident hierarchy, for the expectation is that context will control the text Bryson, , This interpretation also accepts architecture as an autonomous field of production, so that it can reflect meanings in reality that are taken to be imposed upon it.

Architecture and its context of production are interdependent, that means, buildings are social objects. In this sense, and with reference to its definition by Bourdieu, architecture could be taken as a 'field' that operates through the process of 'nation'-building. In a field, the practice of subjects 'depends on their position in the field, i.

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Yet, the field has to be seen as one of struggles whereby subjects as agents participate, practicing according to relations of power effective in the field in order to preserve or transform the configuration of the field itself As such, a field operates according to the mutual relationship between the structural constraints of the social system and the specific and varying practices and relations of the subjects acting according to, and simultaneously changing, these constraints.

The system of the 'nation'-state is not 'a well-defined, clearly bounded and unitary reality which stands in a relation of externality with outside forces that are themselves clearly identified and defined' Bourdieu and Wacquant, , The constraints and regularities of this system are rather configured throughout the process of 'nation'-building according to the changing power relations and practices of various agents in the production of different fields.

The state, society, and architects are the principal agents in the production of architecture that constitutes one such field of this system.

In this context, the built environment Those who dominate in a given field are in space specific conditions. In this process, nationalist ideology can not be defined a position to make it function to their ad- as monolithic and stable but its formulations change according to the continuous vantage but they must always contend with construction of 'national order'.

Order in a 'nation'-state is shaped by the the resistance, the claims, the contention, constantly created and varying requirements of the state itself to the end of this 'political' or otherwise, of the dominated' liourdieu and Wacquant, , During this process, different messages relating to the 'nation' are conceptual- ized in discourses and disseminated through various media, including the display of what is accepted as representative of 'national identity' -such as 'national architecture'.

Only then is it possible to question the possibility of the existence of a unified and stable 'national architecture' as well as a similarly understood 'nation' itself. Only through such a vision of historicity is it possible to understand the 'national' in architectural culture as variously formed as is the 'nation' itself through the 'nation'-building process. Once architecture situates itself within [such] a given social context, it inescapably forsakes the autonomy it possesses in its hypothetical status as pure 'form' Baird, , In terms of an examination of'national architecture', this critique requires an approach that moves away from dealing with design features as such that are accepted to be 'national' -either primordially or by imposition.

Form, alone and unaided, cannot be the vehicle of ideas. The ideas cannot spring from within the form. They arc added from outside, through turns of phrase and through practical function, through practice Without the support of language and functions, there can be no ideological content Aman, , The question to be asked is, therefore, not whether 'national architecture' exists or not, or not simply what 'national architecture' is, but rather why and how attempts exist to understand architecture in 'national' terms.

The analysis should thus be focused on the construction of 'national meaning' in architecture as variously formulated in discourse, and as simultaneously formed in practice, according to the constraints of the specific context through the process of 'nation'-building. This type of understanding requires an analysis of the specific contexts with specific requirements in which discursive formulations and practi- cal formations of 'national architecture' operate.

Architecture Depends by Jeremy Till : SAMPLE CHAPTER : introduction - the elevator pitch

The consequent architectural products produce meanings, and their meanings are produced, as part of the process of constructing 'national order'. Only in these terms can an under- standing of the relationship between architecture and nationalism be provided which does not depend on nationalism as a model that architecture adopts and according to which architectural products are categorized but which accepts both nationalism and architecture as continuously constructed through the process.

ADAM, P. Abrams, Inc. AMAN, A. FOX, R. Wilentz, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Cambridge University Press. In this way, the installation contributed to the spatial configuration of both the residency and the village beyond the bounds of its physical form. Apparently, they never had these meetings before, as if one unusual form of communication the installation justified another the town meeting.

Clearly, any new structure introduced to Tassoultante would have produced some kind of social change, no matter how slight that change may be. This change is nevertheless the result of a discursive system including the biennial institution, its funding, the history of the location, the various audience groups, the artists, as well as the curators. Photograph by the artist. AH: As you mentioned, we often see architectural exhibitions presented through photography, video, sculpture, and quantitative research.

What contemporary possibilities do you see for exhibiting architecture in its own medium, beyond commercial instances? CC: So many of these conventions of exhibiting architecture come from academic and commercial practices. The Beaux Arts system mandated that plans, sections, and elevations be exhibited for review. The presentation board was developed through corporate demands. Part of the way forward includes a redefinition of what architecture is, and that perhaps it should be understood more as an umbrella term that includes buildings, rather than its synonym.

I see architecture as a spatial practice of many intersecting considerations. It makes social, political, economic, environmental, technical, and informational forces manifest. How these things become singularly manifest does not necessarily take the form of a building. However this takes shape will suggest different modes of presentation. Pezo von Ellrichshausen, Mine Pavilion, Photograph by: Christobal Palma.

CC: I think this question is particularly poignant as we continue to degrade our environment. Part of the problem is that the scale and complexity of a biome, a city, or even a building is too vast to communicate in a succinct way. These things are also not discrete objects, but part of larger networks of influence. The photograph of the Earth from the moon similarly forced us to see the world as a discrete object.

Spaceship Earth is a capsule, and this forces us to reconsider the way we use what we have. Through analogy, something complex, immense, and unwieldy is able to enter more easily into discourse. Being sensitive to our built environment could make us more acute to the effects we have on the greater world.

AH: You say that you find the idea of using a neighbourhood or section of a city as an exhibition space, with buildings as the objects of exhibition, accommodating.

There seems to have been a strong tradition of this kind of exhibition in Germany, particularly the Modernist examples you've cited. Can you talk about how this idea has translated, for you, into contemporary projects Draft Urbanism, Aurora?

CC: Seeing the city explicitly as an exhibition has its dangers. Even back then, there was a sense that the built world has a parallel existence in various media like newspapers, magazines, and now the Internet. Buildings are being built, and cities are being designed as much for how they serve a function as how they appear in photographs.

AH: Do you think this kind of citywide exhibition is still relevant in the digital age? As with Denver, a similar strategy was employed for my exhibition at Aurora Dallas My exhibition was called Second Hand Emotions. It was comprised of the blocks containing the Meyer Symphony Hall, and the Cathedral Shrine of the Virgin in Guadalupe, which houses the second biggest Catholic congregation in the United States.

Aurora is a biennial exhibition that has been attracting more than 50, visitors in one night, and I was attracted to the idea of making an exhibition in which the physical presence of a large audience was guaranteed.

AH: Our potential global reach is huge these days. How can architecture, as a predictably physical manifestation, stubbornly located in a specific spatial or geographical context, compete with art forms that adapt easily to the ephemerality of online networks?

The bell, or carillon, is both a maker of urban sounds and a musical instrument, and I liked that Dan would be composing a piece that would be heard throughout downtown Dallas without ever having been there.

In this case, the people of Dallas would be given a direct experience of a work made by someone who only has an indirect experience of it. Connected through Skype, the sound of blowing into a mic is played on bass speakers positioned next to a candle in Amsterdam, and enough pressure is created to blow out a candle. I also enjoyed that this work was projected onto a symphony hall, an architectural type that relies on our demand for first-hand, direct experiences for its existence.

Niko Princen, In the Event of Fire, Photograph by: Josh Blaylock, This was the initial challenge, but it was also not necessarily a hindrance. In Denver, the architectural installations began by identifying a problem of their respective sites. Working the Denver Downtown Partnership—an organization of business owners in the downtown area—various urban concerns were highlighted, and each invited architect was asked to respond on-site through their interventions.AH: As you mentioned, we often see architectural exhibitions presented through photography, video, sculpture, and quantitative research.

Ashish Kalgutkar. Kostof, , Search inside document. Archi- tecture is thus shaped more by external conditions than by the internal pro- cesses of the architect.